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Gum Disease Risk Factors

Gum disease risk factors could affect your overall health. Gum disease is classified by stage and grade – like cancer staging. After conducting a thorough assessment of your gum health and bone status, dentists/periodontists assign a stage ranging from initial to severe, localized to general, that describes the acuteness of the disease. We also give a grade that indicates the disease progression rate and anticipated response to treatment.

Besides poor oral hygiene home care like neglecting teeth brushing, poor techniques and improper toothbrushes, gum disease can be related to or exacerbated by a litany of other factors that have nothing to do with brushing your teeth.

The litany of other factors includes:

Smoking and Recreational Drug use

Tobacco users often see an increase in disease as they are 2x more likely to develop gum disease. Vaping and smoking marijuana also increase the severity of the disease. Patients addicted to methamphetamines often develop meth mouth, characterized by rampant decay with black teeth and severe periodontal disease.

Diabetes

Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders. People with diabetes are at risk for poor healing due to poor blood circulation and greater risk for infections. Gingivitis in diabetic patients can be more challenging to treat because of poor healing capabilities.

Leukemia

Gingivitis can be an early symptom of leukemia, especially in children. Twenty-five percent of children with leukemia develop gingivitis as the first sign of cancer. Data from studies of childhood leukemia have shown that about 25 percent of children with leukemia develop gingivitis as the first sign of cancer. In leukemia patients, leukemia cells infiltrate the gums, and gingivitis can become severe because leukemia reduces the body’s ability to fight the infection.

Pregnancy

During pregnancy, blood flow to the gums increases, causing gum swelling. The gums are also more sensitive and reactive to the bacteria in the plaque. Sometimes, lumps and nodules develop in the gums between teeth that are red and swollen.

Dry Mouth

Certain medications or medical conditions, Sjorgen disease, may cause dry mouth, leaving your mouth more vulnerable to gum disease. Since saliva often helps to wash away plaque and neutralize the pH in the month, when dry mouth occurs, plaque bacteria have a better chance of causing damage, including tooth decay and gingivitis.

Chronic or nocturnal mouth breathing (due to constricted airway, habit, large tongue etc.) often causes dry mouth and desiccated gums.

Menopause

Patients with menopause often experience dry mouth. Sometimes they may even have burning mouth syndrome. Desquamative gingivitis can occur due to the endocrinal imbalance. This type of gingivitis can be excruciating because the outermost layers of the gums pull away from the underlying tissue and expose nerves. That painful gums lead to more neglected oral hygiene.

Nutritional Deficiency

Poor nutrition, especially vitamin C deficiency,  results in bleeding gums that can develop into gingivitis if left untreated. Vitamin C also helps the body perform maintenance and repair on bones, teeth, and cartilage, and it also helps wounds heal. Vitamin B and D, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron deficiency can also impact gum health.

Neurological Diseases

Patients with Parkinsonism, Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS), have difficulty holding a toothbrush and performing proper brushing and flossing that we all normally can do.

Dementia and Alzheimer’s diseases are other neurological disorders that make regular home care challenging as they are too senile and forgetful to perform brushing regularly.

Misaligned Teeth and Missing Teeth

Crooked teeth are often tough to clean by brushing alone, and plaque accumulates around quickly; as a result, causing gum disease. The misaligned teeth can often suffer from excessive force during biting and chewing, which will accelerate the breakdown of the supporting tissues.

Clenching or Grinding Your Teeth

Excessive force on the supporting tissues of the teeth could speed up the breakdown of periodontal tissues.

Systemic Inflammatory Diseases

Patients with chrons disease or rheumatoid arthritis often have poor gum tissues due to the systemic inflammation also manifested in the gums, possibly triggered by the same inflammation agents like cytokines and prostaglandin in the body.

Stress

Chronic distress can lead to hypertension, headaches, upset stomach, chest pain, restlessness, and insomnia. It can bring on or worsen specific symptoms or diseases. Stress causes the body to be weaker in fighting infection, including periodontal diseases.

Genetics and Immunompromised Diseases

Patients born with compromised immune systems or those who acquire immunocompromised diseases are likely to have severe gum diseases.

Cancer treatments often involve chemotherapy or radiotherapy that suppresses the body’s disease-fighting mechanisms.

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